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Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affects the ability of normal movement, maintain balance, posture, muscle tone, walking and coordination of movement. Main cause of CP is damage to the brain most often before birth or developing brain. Symptoms depends and vary on the extend of the brain damage. Cerebral palsy is associated with exaggerated reflexes, floppiness or spasticity of the limbs and trunk, involuntary movements, unsteady walking, problems swallowing and eye muscle imbalance, Epilepsy. Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder. Physiotherapy treatments can help improve function and condition.

Types of Cerebral Palsy

Ataxic cerebral palsy
It occurs due to damage in cerebellum which results difficulty in motor control, movement, balance and coordination. They have walking difficulty, writing problems, involuntary movements in hands and arm.
Athetoid/dyskinetic cerebral palsy
It occurs due to damage in basal ganglia and/or cerebellum damage. Patient with this kind of CP shows fluctuating muscle tone and involuntary movements, they have problem with controlling the movement of their hands, arms, feet, legs, face and tongue which leads to difficulty during sucking, swallowing, and talking.
Hypotonic cerebral palsy
It is a rare type of Cp, caused by cerebellum damage, results floppy muscles, excess flexibility, and poor mobility.
Spastic cerebral palsy
The most common type of cerebral palsy (80%). It occurs due to damage in motor cortex or pyramidal tracts which results increased muscle tone, tight muscles and jerking movements. They are sub classified according to the extend of body part involved. They are Spastic diplegia/diparesis (affects more legs than arms). Spastic hemiplegia/hemiparesis (affects one side of body part). Spastic quadriplegia/quadriparesis (affects all four limbs, the trunk, and the face).
Mixed cerebral palsy
It occurs due to damage in multiple areas of brain, which cause patients to have more than one type of cerebral palsy (spastic-dyskinetic CP).


Early signs of CP vary greatly. Most common early sign is a delay motor or movement milestones (such as rolling over, sitting, standing, or walking). Below are some other signs of possible CP.

  • Younger Than 6 Months of Age: His head lags when you pick him up while he’s lying on his back, he feels stiff or floppy, When cradled in your arms, he overextend his back and neck, When try pick him up, legs become stiff and crossed.
  • Older Than 6 Months of Age: Doesn’t able to roll over, bring her hands together, bringing her hands to her mouth
  • Older Than 10 Months of Age: difficult in crawls


There are several methods to treat CP symptoms.

  • Medication
  • Therapy
  • Surgery
  • Assistive devices
  • Mobility aids


Physiotherapy can help relieve muscle stiffness, spasticity, tightness and improve motor skills and mobility. The treatment composed of stretching, strengthing exercises, balance training, gait training, hydrotherapy, HBOT (Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy) etc. Starting physiotherapy as early as possible is very important and essential to get best improvement.
Physiotherapy will improve Coordination, Balance, Strength, Flexibility, Endurance, Pain management, Posture, Gait, Overall health. It can reduce the muscle tension and jerky movements.

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